Januvia , new generation medicine
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases among modern society. It can be caused by a number of factors: heredity, overweight, and/or stress. The cure to this disease has not been found, but it can be controlled. Prevention and taking control of this complicated disease is important. In order to prevent diabetes, we maintain average weight, exercise regularly, and control our stress levels. If one is diagnosed with diabetes, one needs to be educated to understand this disease, have an exercise plan and a balanced meal plan, and change his or her lifestyle. The meal plan must be balanced and contain less sugary foods, grains ( i.e. rice, bread, potato), more protein (i.e. meat, fish, poultry, tofu, egg), and more fiber (i.e. vegitables). A balanced meal combines many different foods with daily calorie intake. It is very important to maintain control from the moment of diagnosis so that the condition does not become more serious.
The history of diabetes is very long. It started with a Canadian scholar who researched insulin in 1920. This was the 1st revolution. Insulin extracted from a dog could change from a pig and a cow. By 1980, scientists successfully developed synthesis insulin without the use of animals. This was the second revolution.
Now, let’s talk about the medication, which brought about the third revolution.
It was known that insulin could secreate from the pancreas when food is eaten, but a recent study showed a new theory stating that the incretin hormone could secreate from the stomach and intestinal wall when food is eaten. It has also been discovered that this hormone diminishes in people with diabetes when compared with non-diabetics. The body does not respond well to this hormone when it is injected with dextrose (sugar), but there is a dominant response with the intake of food. This incretin hormone stimulates the pancreas to release insulin secretion and stops to release glucagon hormone, causing sugar level to increase. This incretin hormone also prevents the production of liver glucose and keeps the stomache full, slowing down the emptying of the stomach, reducing weight gain, and finally increasing insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the incretin hormone has 7 advantages for all diabetic patients. This incretin hormon will bring more fame than insulin in the next century. Dr. John Eng found similar results with this hormone from Lizard, Saliva. The product Byetta injection was on the market a year after his research from Saliva, Lizard. This injection is used twice daily, has very good results, and is very expensive ($250/month).
Incretin hormon is metabolized (disappears with action) by an enzyme named DPP-IV. In order to prolong the incretin hormone, scientists developed drugs to stop this enzyme DPP-IV from working. There are 2 new drugs that are currently being investigated. One type of medication, called Januvia (Sitagriptin) by Merck, is already on the market, having been approved by the FDA on 0ctober 17, 2006. The other, Galvus by Novatis, is still waiting to be approved. Januvia blocks the enzyme DPP-IV and makes the incretin hormone last longer in the body. This medication is an oral pill taken once a day. It is very expensive but it has its advantages. There are very few side effects known with Januvia, and it does not react with other medications.
I hope the day will come when we can find a cure for diabetes through advancement in technology.